Role of Government - From the Constitution and the Bible Introduction
Americans are blessed by God to live in a free republic with a
government structured upon
democratic principles at multiple levels, including local, state, and
federal government bodies. We are privileged to be able to vote, elect
our government representatives, and influence our decision-makers and
lawmakers. Still, many Americans disagree on various public policies,
so how can we discern when government should be involved, especially
the federal government? For Christians, the ideal government would base
its laws and policies upon God's laws, and fortunately for Americans,
history teaches that our founding fathers indeed structured our government upon
biblical principles. However, have we strayed from God's ideals as our
government has evolved? Let's examine the role of
government, primarily the federal government, from a
biblical and historical perspective.
Mandate for the Role of Government
Consider the role of government as set forth in the Bible in 1 Timothy
2:1-2: "I urge, then, first of all, that requests, prayers,
intercession and thanksgiving be made for everyone--for kings and all
those in authority, that we may live peaceful and quiet
in all godliness and holiness."
This passage not only says that, as Christians, we are obligated to
thank God for our leaders and to pray
for them, but it also tells us
what the role of government should be.
National Defense -
The Primary Role of Government at the Federal Level
The most fundamental role of government is to allow its citizens
to live peaceful and quiet lives. In Genesis 10 through 12
(specifically 10:5, 11:9, and
12:1-2), God created the institution of nations, and determined that
people would be divided according to national entities, with each
controlled by its own independent government. God condemned
aggression from one nation against another, but knowing man's greed and
evil, He sanctioned warfare as a means of protection
against aggressors. Herein lies the first and foremost
responsibility and role of government, that of defense, and in our
this responsibility falls primarily upon the federal government.
Therefore, as sanctioned by the Bible, and by our constitution, our
federal government has the right and responsibility to tax us citizens
for the funds required to build and maintain a defense system that will
afford us continued peace and freedom.
Law and Order
In fact, this principle affects all levels of government in terms of
justice, and ensuring that laws are enforced. Our local,
state, and federal government bodies each have the right to collect
from us in order to fund the costs of maintaining law
and order. This includes government expenses for law enforcement,
legislation, courts, and highway development. Again,
this is all justified by the Bible's
explicit call for the role of government to be that of allowing us to
live peaceful and
The essence of this passage is that the role of government is to
provide us the
freedom to bring glory to God by fulfilling Genesis 1:28: "God blessed
them and said to them, 'Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the
earth and subdue it...'"
Mandate for the Role of Government
Because our government was built upon Christian principles, the
historical documents penned by our forefathers, such as the Declaration
of Independence and the Constitution, support the biblical guidelines
for the role of government, as outlined above. The preamble of the
Constitution states that the powers
of the federal government are limited to:
1. Insuring domestic tranquility (law and order)
2. Providing for the common defense (national
3. Promoting the general welfare (support
4. Secure the blessings of Liberty (provide
The Limited Powers
of the Federal Government
The Constitution is quite clear in setting forth its purpose of
limiting the role of the federal government. It doesn't simply present a
list of things the federal government should do. Instead, it limits
what the federal government can do. For example, in Article 1, Section
it says, "The Congress shall have power to..." If it's not
listed there, the Congress should not have the power to do it.
Below is a summary of the limits placed upon the power of the
federal government power as set forth by
the Constitution, Again, these are the only things that the
federal government can do. If it's not listed, the federal
government can't do it:
Article 1, Section 8, Congress (Legislative Branch)
- Collect taxes.
- Pay debts.
- Borrow money.
- Regulate commerce.
- Establish uniform naturalization laws.
- Establish uniform bankruptcy laws.
- Coin money.
- Establish punishment for counterfeiters.
- Establish post offices and roads for delivering the mail.
- Provide laws for copyrights and patents.
- Constitute tribunals accountable to the Supreme Court.
- Establish punishment for crimes committed at sea.
- Declare war.
- Raise and support various branches of the military.
- Establish a national capital.
- Make laws.
Article 2, Section 2, The President (Executive Branch)
- Serve as Commander in Chief of the military.
- Make treaties.
- Fill vacancies of various government posts.
Article 3, Section 2, The Supreme Court (Judicial Branch)
- Serve as the superior court for law and equity.
The Bill of Rights
Furthermore, the Bill of Rights goes so far as to explicitly name
certain rights which the federal government cannot violate.
These are summarized as follows:
- Congress cannot establish a state religion.
- Congress cannot prohibit the free exercise of religion.
- Congress cannot abridge the freedom of speech.
- Congress cannot abridge the freedom of the press.
- Congress cannot forbid the right to assemble.
- Congress cannot forbid the right to petition the government
for a redress of grievances.
- The right to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
- The people cannot be forced to give room and board to
- The government cannot execute unreasonable searches and
- The people have a right to a Grand Jury.
- Accused persons have a right to a speedy and public trial.
- The people have a right to a trial by jury.
- The government cannot execute excessive bails or fines.
- The government cannot execute cruel and unusual punishments.
- This list does not deny any other rights.
- "The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the
states respectively, or to the people." In other words, the
intent was to limit the role, size, and power of the federal government.
An Evaluation of
Now, how does our federal government compare to the role set forth in
and the Constitution? Most of us would agree that the U.S.
military is the strongest in the world, and we have a high degree of
comfort that we are well protected by the national
defense of our federal government. Whether or not our system of defense
is well managed
another matter, but most of us do feel
safe, free, and fairly unafraid of outside
though our system of justice
has its faults, and crime is always too high, most of us probably feel
at least somewhat comfortable with our system of law and
order. Our law enforcement agencies and fire departments
afford us protection to live happily and safely, and for that we should
be grateful. In this respect, the role of government is being fulfilled.
The Size of
However, I believe that the role of government has
expanded far beyond that
set forth in the Bible and the Constitution. This
seems obvious simply by the size of our government. Isn't
something obviously wrong when we have 100,000 government units
(cities, counties, etc.) employing 25 million people and
paying $1T in salaries? Remember that they're all
collecting taxes from us, and
this figure represents only their own payroll. We're
paying them to think of
ways to spend the other trillions of dollars they collect from us.
Government employees add much overhead to the tax burden. In this
respect, the role of government is not being fulfilled, because it is
exceeding its authority.
For 2016, federal government spending can be broken down
approximately as follows:
| Health Care
| Social Security
| Income Security
(Welfare, Federal Pensions, ...)
|Salaries of 3 Million Federal Civilian
|Other (Transportation, ...)
We've warped our constitution and become a land of entitlements (redistribution of wealth).
Our federal government spends three times as much on
entitlement programs (which are not specified in the constitution)
as on national defense (which is specified in the constitution).
who opposed the war in Iraq
justifiably complained that we spent $12 billion per month in Iraq ($144B per
is only 4% of what we spend on entitlement programs.
Not surprisingly, runaway federal government spending results in
runaway federal government taxation. For a
more detailed look at unreasonable taxation, please refer to The
Problem With Taxes.
The Distorted Role
of the Federal Government
Our federal government is trying to do much more than it is supposed to
according to both the Bible and the Constitution. As a result, federal
government spending is out of control. Regardless of
intentions to help people, the federal government should not be
most of its current spending activities. Just because someone
will receive some benefit, this does not justify going forward with a
program to be funded by tax increases.
It is not the role of government to distribute or
Unfortunately, some politicians have used "promoting the general
welfare" as an excuse for empowering the federal government to do
long as it's intended to provide some good for any selected individual
or group. This distorts the meaning of the word
Some politicians have such "compassion" (or perhaps their own lust for
power) to "protect" us that they continue to restrict our freedom
through government regulations such as OSHA. If they can
spend $100 billion of our money to enforce safety policies that save a
single human life, then that's what they do. Granted it's
difficult to place a
price tag upon human life, but does reason have no say? Why are
they so much
more concerned for that single human life than for the lives of
the million innocent children who are aborted
Many Americans don't understand the role of government, and some just
look to the federal government for free handouts. It becomes a
game, believing that we're paying more than our fair share in taxes,
and subsequently demanding that the federal government does some new
I once read an editorial in the newspaper where someone wrote,
"I'm an addicted smoker... What is my government doing for me?" Do we
actually believe that absolutely anything justifies more federal
Not the Role of the Federal Government
It is not the role of government to continually grow into an
and wasteful institution in the name of doing good for select
individuals through undeserved entitlements, at the expense of others.
In this respect, the role of government is being exceeded beyond what
the Bible and the Constitution allow.
Of course, we have a moral obligation to assist the truly
needy and the genuinely helpless, but the Bible has explicit guidelines
for this process, which we have
unfortunately distorted to include many undeserving
President Johnson's heart may have been in the right place in trying to
poverty by ushering in the welfare state for his "Great Society," it
has grown into a grossly unjust financial nightmare. We see able men and women refusing to work because
they can live comfortably on welfare. Also, I believe that our churches
should step up to shoulder more of the load of caring for the truly
needy. Of course this needs to be done, but it's not a part of the role
of government, and it only fails to motivate our people and
It doesn't please
God or bring glory to Him when we "help" an able-bodied
such a way that he/she becomes dependent upon the federal government to
the point of
refusing to work because they know they don't have to. Many
they find themselves in desperate situations due only to their own
and mismanagement of what God has given them. When the federal
such an able-bodied person, both parties must understand that the
limited and temporary, and has a definite terminal point. The
should continue only until that person has had adequate time
to get his
reorganized. The federal government should offer welfare assistance
similar to the way that it offers
relief, with quick response, with limited assistance based upon the
and of a temporary and specified duration. Perhaps our assistance
should then be
the form of a
low-interest loan. Consider what the Bible says on this
2 Thessalonians 3:20, "If a man will not work, he shall not eat."
There comes a point at which a person does not deserve additional help,
if he has chosen the easy way out by evading responsibility. If a
person is hungry because of the consequences of his own actions, and he
refuses to help himself by the
means which God has provided to him, then this verse says that he
permitted to starve.
Perhaps the federal government should limit the amount of time
that some people can spend on public assistance; maybe no more than six
months at a
time, and a lifetime limit of two years. This might help in
teaching the biblical principle of personal
Perhaps the federal government should institute penalties, instead of
having addition children while on public assistance. Maybe these
penalties could be expanded to teenage pregnancies and abortions.
This would encourage personal responsibility concerning sexual
promiscuity, birth control, and having additional children without
means to support them.
Perhaps if the federal government decreased all public assistance
payments by the amount of the
wage, this would encourage recipients to get jobs.
Perhaps public assistance payments should be decreased by the amount
that the recipient spent in the previous month on things such as
alcohol, tobacco, and convenience items. Should people on public
assistance really expect to live as well as those who are working?
Does it make any sense to use our increased federal government spending
to provide food stamps
which enable people to buy and smoke cigarettes, especially when the
rightly discourages smoking anyway? If
a person on public assistance splurges on an i-Phone, maybe his
assistance payment should be decrease by $50 per month for six months.
If he overspends on an
apartment or a car, maybe his payment should be reduced by that
overspent amount, perhaps above a reasonable pre-set
would encourage wiser choices in spending habits. Remember that this
spending the taxpayers' money, not his own.
Perhaps the federal government should deny public assistance payments
to those who use
illegal drugs, in order to discourage drug use.
We must stop growing the federal government, raising taxes,
and shrinking freedom
based solely on the "compassion" of the liberals to make the federal
everything for everybody. Upon any mention of
tax cuts, there is always the unfounded social objection that it would
out of the mouths of babes. In reality, many
families on public assistance have all of the modern conveniences of
In addition to entitlement programs for individuals, the federal
government has no business bailing out companies or
industries that are failing, especially those that are failing because
of mismanagement. We should allow such companies, and individuals, to
declare bankruptcy. Also, it's simply dishonest to disguise any such
federal government spending by burying it as pork barrel spending in a
bill labeled as an "economic stimulus" package.
President Franklin Roosevelt may have had a good idea when he
institutionalized our Social Security system to help assure financial
elderly citizens on the heels of the Great
as with welfare, we've let this grow into something
non biblical. The
federal government is mismanaging this massive tax by using it for
purposes, so the fund is going broke. The federal government will never
to deliver on the benefits previously promised, especially to
today's younger workers. The federal government is denying us the right
to invest our
own money for retirement. Even in nominal cases there are
gross inequities, such as the following:
- A wealthy 95-year-old man continues to collect the
maximum amount of social security from the federal government, as he
has for 30 years, despite the
fact that he has already collected hundreds of times the amount he
paid. He's a millionaire, and doesn't really need the money.
- A 64-year old man had always been the primary
breadwinner of his family, and he earned a nominal income. He
thousands in Social Security taxes to the federal government over his
48-year career. He
cancer, couldn't work, and signed up for disability. He died,
his wife received a single
disability payment, which she was forced to return to the federal
nor his family
received a single penny of the Social Security he had paid. Since
his son was 18 years old, there was also no assistance for
children, despite the fact that the mother was trying to send the son
on a meager income. Where's the equity in this?
The federal government refuses to allow taxpayers to invest even part
of their Social Security money themselves (their own money). Therefore,
perhaps the best solution for fixing Social Security would be for the
federal government to admit
that it's a bad idea and abolish it. We would simply divide the current
balance in the Social Security
fund among those who contributed to it, based upon how much they
to the inability of the federal government to manage money, none of us
will receive as
much as we have
paid so far, so we will all lose accordingly. Of course, this would
also mean that the federal government would have to simply trust the
American people to have the sense
their money. Then the federal government could reinstate a much smaller
program only for
need elderly citizens. Even if the system is abolished, the federal
government could at least:
payments to the amount of Social Security taxes the recipient has paid;
use means testing to prevent providing benefits to millionaires; and,
remove the limit on Social Security taxes so that millionaire
executives have to pay in the same percentage as everyone else.
Uses of Taxes by the Federal Government
Suppose a man chooses to build a house on a muddy hillside because of
its awesome beauty. After being warned of the danger, and
seeing that other nearby houses have been destroyed because of the
insecure foundation, the man insists on proceeding with the building of
house. Now, when the rains come, and the house slides down the hill,
should the federal government tax all the other people who built their
in safer locations, in order to reimburse this man for his
loss? Obviously it shouldn't, as suggested by both biblical
responsibility and common sense.
The Environment -
More Federal Government Spending
The environment is a hot political issue, and those whose hearts bleed
for its protection have discovered that it presents a relatively easy
for federal government spending and raising income taxes. The popular
man will ruin the environment demonstrates the height of
arrogance. Matthew 10:29 says, "Are not two sparrows sold for
penny? Yet not one of them
will fall to the ground apart from the will of your
control, and His plan will not be compromised by left-wing liberals. If
wants the ozone layer to be destroyed, it will be destroyed. However,
he has also given His earth an amazing resiliency. Rain
grow back, and even devastating flows of volcanic lava and ash
eventually give way to an even more fertile environment. The
extinction of the next species, sad as it may be, will cause no more
havoc than the thousands preceding it. Again, the role of government is
being exceeded beyond its legal limits here, and it is usually
unnecessary federal government spending, caused by much ado
about nothing. Just as the federal government is in a panic about
global warming this very week (01/26/09), the United Arab Emirates saw
only the second snowfall ever recorded on its desert floor.
Education - State
and Federal Government Spending
Perhaps education should not even be subsidized by the state or federal
government. Private schools, which receive no government
money, seem to be producing graduates who are at least as well educated
as those from public schools. Why should my funds for education first
through the infrastructure of a huge bureaucracy, leaving so little for
the actual education of my own children? Again, we're in a vicious
claiming that since the state and federal government paid for my
education, then they should
pay for my children's education as well. Nobody is brave enough to
break the cycle, but this doesn't make it right. Education
be important enough to families (just behind food, clothing, and
shelter), such that we budget for it like everything else. Why
the couple with no children pay the same in school taxes as the couple
The Role of the Church
Concerning assistance for the truly needy, Galatians 2:10
says, "All they asked was that we should continue to
remember the poor."
However, this verse says that helping the poor is the
not the role of the government. Perhaps our churches
would be more
responsible in this role if its members weren't overtaxed in order to
fund our increased federal
government spending programs. How can we expect a
family to afford to donate 10% of its income to a church
government is already taking 43% of it?
the Separation of Church
As a quick side note, the First Amendment doesn't deny the church
right to influence government policy. It's
just the opposite, because the First Amendment says that. Congress
cannot prohibit the free exercise of religion. Churches
can, and should, influence their government with godly morals and
values. Despite popular opinion, Separation of Church
and State means
that the federal government is denied the power to form a state church
or restrict religious
It is important to note that the taxation problem is not primarily due
oppressive Internal Revenue Service. The IRS is just doing its job of
enforcing our flawed
tax code, and I believe that the problem of people cheating on their
taxes is much greater than the problem of people being abused by the
IRS. For every
case of the IRS abusing an innocent victim, there are probably
thousands of cases of fraudulent tax evasion that go undiscovered. If
the IRS is at fault, it's probably because they're understaffed and
can verify only a very small percentage of under-reported income. If
taxpayers were more honest, tax rates could be lowered.
Though our government is not perfect, we should respect it, just as the
"Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there
is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities
that exist have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels
against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and
those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no
terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want
to be free from fear of the one in authority?
Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is
God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he
does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of
wrath to bring
punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to
submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but
also because of conscience. This is also why you pay taxes,
the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to
governing. Give everyone what you owe him: If you owe taxes, pay taxes;
if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then
honor." Romans 13:1-7
In general, the bible says that we should obey the
federal government. For
example, we should pay our taxes even when we believe that federal
government spending is out of control. However, we should not allow the
federal government to
enforce an unjust or immoral law upon us. For example, if the
federal government fails to
appropriately punish criminals, we are within the biblical guideline to
object through peaceful civil disobedience,
because the federal government
is failing to provide adequate freedom and
if we recognize that the Bible condemns abortion,
and the federal
permits and/or funds abortion
with taxpayer money, we again have the
right to resort to peaceful civil
disobedience on the basis
that the federal government is condoning unscriptural
if the federal government were to demand abortion,
it would be not only
right, but our very
Christian obligation to refuse to obey.
Toward the Federal Government
What should we do then, when the federal government is enforcing
laws? Obviously, we should not resort to violence. The Bible condemns
the violent acts of militant organizations such as those at Waco or
Ruby Ridge, as well as acts of terrorism such as the Oklahoma City
bombing and the bombing of abortion
clinics. However, we do have some
- Our first point of attack is the ballot. We
have no right to complain if our adversaries can go to the courthouse
records to show that we
- We can take legal action. We should
be aware of our legal alternatives, and be able to use our legal rights
just as effectively as our adversaries do. This implies that
must be those
among us who are well versed in the law, and that we need plenty of
- We can flee. If we are truly
disenchanted with the extent of corruption and immorality of the
government, we can legally remove ourselves from its
jurisdiction. Of course, this is not
always a viable alternative in countries whose citizens do not have the
rights to which we are accustomed.
- Finally, if the federal government does attempt to force
immoral and ungodly laws upon us, we should stand up to our adversaries
through non-violent refusal. This can be in the form of public
and boycotts, a technique effectively used by the late Dr. Martin
Luther King. Of course, due to his non-violent protests, Dr.
was no stranger to a jail cell, and we should be ready to accept this
consequence as well, if we truly want to protest an unjust
example, if we believe that the federal government is unjustly
collecting too much
in taxes, and using the proceeds in unbiblical ways, then we have the
alternative to openly refuse to pay our taxes, and then willingly
accept the consequences of fines or jail sentences.
Other problems in
the Federal Government
By the same principles as outlined above, it is also wrong to use
federal government spending programs to use taxpayer money to
tolerate illegal drugs, sexual immorality, adultery,
undermine family values; burden Christian schools with federal
bureaucracy; remove the distinction of the biblical roles of the sexes;
fight wars we don't intend to win; send money and technology to
socialist countries; and, as stated above, finance the welfare state on
the basis of compassion.
Why This Trend
Continues in our Federal Government
There is some truth to the allegation that we have nobody to blame for
the size and expanded role of the federal government except ourselves.
blessed to live in a free republic under a democratic
government. The people
making all of these decisions were either voted into office by us or
appointed by the officials we elected. What does this mean for
of us who
believe that the federal government is too large, that its power and
authority are too large in scope, and that federal government spending
is inflating our taxes? Are in the
minority? Are most people apparently pleased with our present
situation? Suppose a pollster contacted every adult in the country and
asked the following questions:
- "Would you like for federal government spending to continue
include $2.6 trillion on Welfare, Social Security, and Medicare
as we do today?"
- "Would you like for federal government spending to continue
to include paying $1T
we spend on national defense) for government employee
- "Would you like for federal government spending to continue
to include trillions of dollars to bail out individuals and
corporations who are in financial trouble due to poor decision-making?
And, would you like to continue referring to these bailouts as "loans,"
or better yet, "economic stimulus packages?"
- "Would you like to continue paying 43 cents of
to the federal government in taxes?"
Speculation about the results of such a poll is difficult to quantify,
but I believe that most people would answer in favor of
reduced spending and lower taxes. However, due to problems with our
system of voting, policy
is often created by a minority rather than by a majority. For a more
detailed look at these problems, and suggested solutions, please refer
Trouble With Voting.
However, there is
another train of thought that would suggest that most people would
the above spending poll in favor of keeping our system of massive
federal government spending and high taxes. In this case, the problem
is that we
ourselves are caught up in the bureaucracy of the federal government
and we selfishly protect our own interests in spite of what is right.
Consider how many people are collecting money from the federal
Although the federal government reports are quite ambiguous, The Statistical Analysis
of the U.S. seems to support these estimates:
- The number of Americans collecting some form of Social Security
(retirement, disability, etc.) from the federal government is
approximately 60 million,
representing some 30 million households. The average amount
collect is about $15,000 per year, and the total is nearly $1T.
- The number of Americans collecting other social
from the federal government, such as welfare, food stamps, earned
income credit, farm subsidies,
is approximately 50 million, representing some 30 million
average amount they collect is again over $10,000 per year, and the
total is again over $500 billion.
- The number of Americans collecting a payroll check from the
state, local, or federal government, as cited above, is approximately
25 million, representing
some 25 million households, and some 50 million people who depend upon
those government payroll checks. The average amount they
is about $40,000, and the total is about $1T.
If you total these numbers, you have 160 million people in 85 million
households collecting $2.5 trillion from the state, local, and federal
government. That only
leaves approximately 140 million of us in 40 million
households who receive no checks from the government. 45% of
are providing most of the funding, not
only for ourselves, but for the other 55% as well. We are clearly
outnumbered. We can't return to a godly federal government
over half of
us are already dependent upon this one. We feel like we can't reduce
the role of the federal government to its proper size because tens of
employees would lose their jobs. The bad news, even for those receiving
checks, is that this trend simply cannot continue. When too
people become dependent upon a
government funded by too few, the system will collapse. In
respect, the role of government is simply not being fulfilled
About 43% of us pay all
of the income taxes, while the other 57% of
Americans are off the income tax rolls.
The role of government doesn't include doing everything for
fact, it's supposed to do very little--only provide protection and
freedom to obey God's commands and bring Him glory. The Church
shoulder more of the responsibility of helping the poor and
else, including subsidies to lazy freeloaders and millionaires, is
wrong. The blame lays both with us voters and with the federal
voters are wrong in selfishly and repeatedly voting for the same big
spenders term after term, and the federal government is wrong in not
imposing term limits, and in letting
federal government spending get out of hand.
Owen Weber 2016