The Bible into English
In this segment, “The Bible into
English,” we will study the translation of the Bible into the English language.
This is background material for our study of
inspiration and of the canon of Scripture which is coming up. This
background may make you feel as if you’re
in a school room situation.
My number three son told me that he got so carried away in the morning service as we
were describing some of the background that he didn’t understand
something and he almost forgot himself and almost spoke out loud to ask a question. He thought he was in class.
Well I hope you have the spirit that you are
in class and that you are learning.
If you do, we have learned thus far certain things.
We looked at the nature of
writing in the ancient world, and the kind of materials that were used.
We studied the sources of the present copies
which we have of the Bible in Greek and Hebrew manuscripts in the
and in the papyri fragments.
at the various hazards that were faced by the manuscripts until they
over the centuries into our hands and into the hands of the textual
have received these texts, who have undergone these hazards, and then
textual scholars restoring that text to its original form.
with 5,000 Greek manuscripts and
hundreds of Old
Testament manuscripts and Old Testament versions, with the Greek and
manuscripts, we have quite a collection of material to work
from—far more than
any of the ancient classical Greek and Hebrew writers.
learned that there were made of
course in copying as that
Some of these
and some of these were intentional—errors of the eye,
errors of the ear, hearing a thing wrong, etc. So
there were various ways that these errors could
the year 100 and 325 A. D.,
when Christianity became
an authorized religion and became the department of religion of the
this was a period of extensive copying of scriptural manuscripts on
and the time of bringing the various New Testament books together in
It was also a
time of extensive
persecution and of destruction of manuscripts.
under these conditions
were more interested in
the substance of Scripture than in the accuracy of the words or the
they were not as
concerned about errors, and errors were more likely to creep in. This
is the period when most of the problems
that textual criticism has to deal with arose. Here
is where the errors were made.
Here is where the
variants, by and large, were
produced that the critics
seek to solve today.
325 A. D., after Christianity
was now accepted in
the Roman Empire, and 1516 A. D., when the first Greek text was
was a period during the Middle Ages where the velum codex manuscript
most prominent kind.
were made of the Greek and Hebrew texts as well as the versions.
all of the time there had been
vast destruction of
manuscripts, but some copies had survived. However,
what was being copied included all these
errors that were made
in that early period from 100
to 325 A.
D during which they were under persecution, more concerned for the
than the accuracy of the words.
there was very little revision of
They just passed
it on down
worried too much.
Word of God is the Word of God.” They
didn’t concern themselves too much with the accuracy of the
we have a source of a vast number
of manuscripts as a
result for the scholars to work from—5,000 of them, but they
job of reworking them because of the technique of copying.
we did study then the principles
which guide the textual scholars in determining the original readings
among the variants.
we’ve found that there were
families of manuscripts in
the Greek and Hebrew both.
Testament were the traditional, the Alexandrian, and the Western. Most
of them were in the traditional, and out
of these have come our various English translations.
the Hebrew there were also families,
including the Masoretic which is the basic family, the Septuagint which
Greek translation, and the Samaritan Pentateuch. All
of these represented various family
groups, that is, manuscripts that all seem to have the same words and
type of variations within them.
also looked at the nature of the
Greek and Hebrew
languages which was used by God to bring His revelation.
found that this was the very language that
people used in normal business life. It
was the vernacular, the common speech. All
of this study is background information so that you’ll
critic attacks and says, “You can’t depend on the
because it has too many
mistakes in it from its original copies. I
remind you that God not only inspired but His hand
was upon these
manuscripts, and upon all of this copying of His Word and preserving it
down to our day it is possible for us to come up with the original
I want to look at the racial
background of the English
that we start
with a little bit of looking at the racial background of the English
All of the races
on the face
of the face of the earth have descended from Noah’s three
From them came
three great families:
the Semitic, the
Hamitic, and the Japhetic.
The Japhetic line
is also called the Aryan,
the Indo-European, or the Indo-Germanic family. The
Japhetic has six sub-families.
This includes the
Asiatics which were the Medes, the
Persians, and the
peoples of India.
It included the
with various branches of that group. It
included the sub-family of the Romans, the Latins, and then the romance
such as the Italians, the French, the Spaniards, the Portuguese, and
Then it also had
sub-family of the Celts which were the Galls, the Britons, the Cornish,
Welch, the people who lived in Britany and France, the Irish, the
Scots and the Manx.
was the Slavs including the Russians, the Bulgarians, the Bohemians,
Polish, and Serbians, and the Slovaks. A
final one was the Teutonic or the Germanic peoples.
fall into three classes, and our
concern and our interest is with this particular group.
fall into the East German which was the
Goths, the Burundians, the Vandals, the Franks, the Lombards, and so on. These
have disappeared as racial groups. There
was the North Germanic, or the
group—the Danes, the Norwegians, the Swedes, and the
Then there was
the West Germanic sub-family
The Upper, or
group was called the High Germans. The
Northern Germany group was called the Lower Germans.
these people, the Lower Germans,
that we want to zero in
on here, lived on the shore of the North Sea and on the continent along
shores of the Danish peninsula.
included the Angles, the Saxons, the Jutes, the Dutch, and the Flemish. It
is these people who are the forerunners of
the English nation and of the language which you speak today. The
people of England were invaded at an
early date, somewhere between 600 to 400 B. C., and conquered by this
called the Celts.
The Celts invaded
British Isle and they took it over. They
gave themselves the name Britons. They
the Celtic civilization, customs, dialects, and along with it the Druid
religion with all of its horrible features including human sacrifices. In
55 to 54 B. C., the Romans invaded under
twice, they took hostages, and they left with a promise of tribute
was never honored.
in 43 A. D., the Roman Emperor
Claudius made a third
invasion of Britain.
He destroyed the
power of the Druids, he subdued the Britons, and he took their leader
This brought to
an end the
Celtic civilization in Britain.
Romans introduced a better civilization. They
built defenses against the northern marauders
and against the Saxon
In 410 A. D., the
was on its last legs.
It was cracking
the seams under the onslaught of the Germanic tribes surrounding the
So under the
threat of the
barbarians, namely the Visigoths, the Vandals, and the Huns, which were
mongrel group—Attila being one of the bright boys.
410 the Roman emperor Honorius withdrew
his troops from the British Isles and left the Britons to themselves. A
this time with Roman military force
withdrawn, and the island exposed to invaders, the Low German invaders
proceeded to do just that, and the Anglo-Saxon conquest took place.
Britons, being abandoned by the
Romans, came under
attack of the Picts and the Scots from the North and the Saxon pirates
southeast of England.
So in desperation
the Britons invited the sea-roving Jutes who lived on the Danish
come and help them.
land and money.
So they got one
fight another enemy.
They drove the
Then they settled
down in one of
the choice areas of England in the area of Kent.
of Saxons also invaded from the
continent over the
years 477 to 530 A. D.
areas which were not held by the Jutes. Sussex,
Wessex, and Essex were the areas in which they settled.
in 527 and again in 547, bands of Angles
came over from the continent.
invaded and they conquered all of eastern Briton which was not held by
Jutes and the Saxons.
here you have three Low German, or
West German, classes
who drove out the Britons, the Celts, and with it Christianity, which
introduced into Briton in 70 A. D. They
drove the Celts into Wales, into Brittany, and into France across the
The Angles, the
Saxons, and the
Jutes later united under one name called the Anglo-Saxon, and in time
became the dominant group, so the country came to be called Angleland
then softened to England.
the middle of the 7th
century A. D., the
Anglo-Saxons held England.
subjugation of the Galic Britons was complete. It
was done violently.
either put to the sword, put to slavery, or driven to exile. The
period of Celtic domination was
were in full
on this background we come to the
origin of the English
Bible because the English language falls into three periods. The
first period goes from 450 to 1100 A.
It is called the
period of Old
Old English was
The Old English,
because of its German heritage, used endings. We
call these declensions and conjugations in the
case of verbs.
were signposts grammatically
as to what was being said.
English today does not do that, but the original Old English did. This
form of Old English is quite impossible
for us to read today.
you look at … some of the
poems by the great Old English epic
writer Beowulf, you can see that there’s no way that you can
unless you learn how to read it—you can learn that.
for us to read anything like Beowulf, and
we have just one manuscript of some of his epic poems in the British
The only way for
you to read
this is for somebody to translate it into modern English.
was to all intents and purposes just
totally foreign to us.
there were people who spoke
re-introduced to England in
500 A. D. by Patrick, a Scotchman who evangelized Ireland.
worked apart from the Roman Catholic Church. He
introduced Christianity into northern
southern England in 597 A. D. by Augustine of Canterbury under the
Pope Gregory I.
Gregory the Great
pope who had a heart for evangelization. He
commissioned Augustine with a group of monks to
heart was not in this at
As a matter of
fact he got half-way
there and he sent a message back to the pope and said “Can we
come back and
just forget it?”
The pope said,
Well it was seven
the pope could send them any assistance, but as it turned out in the
of God that Augustine’s mission was a magnificent success. King
Egbert of Kent and his people were
converted and Augustine became the first Archbishop of the first
spread from here
throughout the Anglo-Saxon
Few people could
read and the
Bible that was in existence is that Latin Vulgate version that we have
studying, and this was of course only in manuscript form.
the monks did have some education and
they interpreted the Latin Vulgate to the people, but the people
a great desire for the Word of God in the language they understood,
we have some early Old English
translators of Scripture.
Here they are: The
first of them was a man named Caedmon. He
died about 680 A. D.
was a stable man, a servant in a monastery
in north England.
It was the custom
feast times to pass the harp around the hall for everybody to sing. When
they started doing that, Caedmon would
always get up and slip out because he couldn’t sing.
night he had a dream in the form of a
vision, as the story goes.
that he had an angelic commission to sing. He
said, “What shall I sing?” The
angel said, “Sing of the glories of creation.”
Caedmon entered the monastic life and in Celtic
Saxon verse as a monk
would translate from the Latin for him, he would form short lines of
expressions of the Scripture.
they would start with the book of
Genesis and the monk
would read to him, and Caedmon would put this into a song, into a verse
It was a
It was not really
He would sing it. Well
the next time they had a feast and it
came his time, he grabbed a harp and sang through Genesis chapter one
a big hit.
In the process of
heard the Word of God, even though it was a paraphrase which is not a
People who write
a way of viewing what they write as the bread of life.
has such a nice sound to it that
Christians have a way of looking at it as the bread of life. So
it is presented as bread, and the people
who make paraphrases usually end up rolling in
But be careful of
Maybe once every
few years, look and see if
they’re still around, but read the Word of God.
paraphrase is a commentary.
is not the Word of God.
Steer clear of
But here, Caedmon
did a splendid
thing in starting off a presentation of the Word of God in a way that
could understand in the form of the language of Old English.
second man that came along was a
man named Aldhelm.
He died in 709. He
was a bishop in south England.
He was really the
first great scholar in
He translated the
Anglo-Saxon, that is, Old English.
next man was Egbert who was a
bishop in north
He translated the
about 705 A. D. into Anglo-Saxon. He
this under the urging of Aldhelm. Consequently,
Aldhelm’s translation in the Old
Testament and Egbert’s in
the New Testament were the forerunners of the English Bible which you
next man on the scene was a man
named Bede who died in
Bede was a gold
monk in north
England, much respected as a scholar, an historian, and a theologian. For
this reason he was historically called
the Venerable Bede.
As a matter of
he was the father of English history because he wrote a volume called
History of England. He
wrote it in
Latin and it was a classic.
translated the book of John by dictation into Anglo-Saxon.
he was doing this work, he was extremely
As a matter of
fact, he was on his
As he came right
down to the
very last chapter, while his assistant and servant was urging him to
was pressing on to finish the last chapter of the Gospel of John. They
pushed on and came down to the last
It was obvious
that Bede was very
very ill, and still he pressed on and finished the last line, and
thereafter that day he died.
the very end he pressed himself because, he said, after he is gone he
want his boys to read a lie, but to read the truth of the Word of God,
didn’t want them to work to no purpose after his death, but
have the Word of
God to guide them to a purpose in their lives. He
believed the only way this could be done was in a
language that they
So he pressed his
of life into a predecessor copy of the Bible that is ours today.
Alfred the Great
next man in the Old English
translator group was Alfred the
Great, king of England.
He died in
pirates had been making
havoc in north England, destroying places of learning, abbeys,
churches, libraries, and schools. Well
Alfred stopped the Danes and restricted them to the northeast part of
with himself as their overlord.
was a man of learning.
As a matter of
fact, he was responsible for the revival of learning in western England. He
loved books and he wanted all freeborn
youth to read the Bible in Anglo-Saxon before they did anything else in
So he led
scholars in the
translation of the Ten Commandments, the Old Testament laws, the book
Psalms, and the gospels.
He composed a
code of English law, and for this reason he is called the father of
sixth man was Algred who was a
priest who about 950 A. D.
made an interlinear Anglo-Saxon paraphrase of the old Latin version of
The old Latin
version was the
one before the Latin Vulgate of Jerome. He
made a paraphrase, again not a translation. This
is called the Linsfard gospels and
in the dialect of Anglo-Saxon in north England.
seventh man was Alfrick who died in
He was archbishop
He translated the
gospels, the first seven
books of the Old Testament, Esther, Job, part of Kings, and the
books of Judith and Maccabees.
He is the
most important write of this Old English period except perhaps with the
exception of Bede.
this period we move to the Middle
English period which
ran from 1000 to 1500 when the Renaissance was in full swing in Europe
the Dark Ages.
some differences now from Old English and you begin to recognize Middle
as something that you can read.
now everything has been in this strange old Anglo-Saxon language. Middle
English developed the habit of
accenting all the words on the first syllables, which is the way we do
This is not so in
would retain letters that we call silent letters, it might retain it in
spelling but it discontinued in the pronunciation.
that you pronounced every letter that
you saw on the page.
change in language came about with
a conquest of Britain
This was the last
of the long
line of conquest of the British isle. This
was by the Norman conquerors.
The Normans were
rough adventurous sea-rovers from
They were men who
down, invaded France in the 10th
century, and they took a
on the coast of the English Channel which was then named after them as
into fame during World War II as the point at which the allied forces
the invasion of Hitler’s fortress Europa. They
were called North men.
were Scandinavian so they were naturally called North men, but this
softened to Norman.
mixed race of Frenchmen and these North men.
The Battle of
the death of the English king,
Edward the Confessor,
Harold, Earl of Essex, was chosen king. However,
William, Duke of Normandy, claimed that the
throne had been
promised to him by Edward before his death. So
they decided to invade England.
England and the confrontation was at the
famous Battle of
Hastings that every school boy has studied in 1066 when William, Duke
Normandy, slew Harold, Earl of Essex, and took the English throne from
The ended the
Anglo-Saxon period of
the Normans came a new spirit of
initiative and liberty into the English nation. They
united the nation.
Normans had been “Christianized,” so religion
very very much under
them—great building programs, great organizational
However, they had
no use for Bible
translations and use for the Saxon manuscripts. But
they did create an intellectual stirring in
England and an improved
standard of living.
the Norman language began
affecting the Old English
What the Normans
spoke was a
combination of the German and the French. The
Norman French was the language of the ruling
class, but Anglo-Saxon
remained the language of the people, but the scholars all spoke in
So you had all
three going at the
But gradually the
combined with the Anglo-Saxon to develop what we call Middle English. The
French influenced the English word order
from its Germanic heritage.
Those of you
who have studied German know that the word order in German has the
throwing the verb at the end of the sentence, whereas we put it in a
place in the English order.
Well this is
when this changeover began to take place.
dialects developed in the Middle
English period, and
that in the vicinity of London began to rise in dominance.
can look at a segment of Middle English and you can see that without
difficulty you are able to read it. You
can see that German syntax with that verb thrown at the end of the
This still has a
trace of its
there’s a great difference,
immediately you see, of the
language that has taken place from the Anglo-Saxon Old English. Immediately
a problem arose because people
who now knew something about reading Scripture in whatever was
Old English were at a loss now that this was their speech.
immediately something had to be done
There had to be a
The bridge was
broken to the continent.
The change had
So there was a
span of 200 years from the
time of Alfrick before there was anything else put in the way of Bible
first man to come along to do that
was a man name
Orm was an
Augustinian month who in
1215 A. D. made a verse-like metrical paraphrase of parts of the
This was in
This was not a
This work is
called the Ormulum.
explanatory notes for use in
In other words, a
of an exposition.
This work reveals
progress of English into the place where it has definite spelling.
second man was a man named
Shoreham who was a scholarly
parish priest in the south of England, a talented poet.
translated the Psalms into Middle
third man was Richard Rolle who died
Richard Rolle was
a hermit, a
poet, and an
author living in north England.
a translation of the Psalms along with a verse-by-verse commentary. This
work on the Psalms was often combined
with Shoreham’s work and it was known as the Shoreham-Rolle
representing northern and southern England. This
had a wide circulation, this combined
translation of the Psalms,
and it again created a hunger in the hearts of people for large
portions of the
Word of God in the language of Middle English that they now spoke.
desire prepared the way for the
great translator of the
Middle English period which was a man named John Wycliffe.
lived from 1300 to 1384 A. D.
John Wycliffe was
a born-again Roman Catholic
priest who was popular and was the greatest professor at Oxford
England at the time.
strongly against the usurpations of the papacy against the government
The papacy was
tribute upon the various governments, particularly upon England, in
support the lavish life of the papal courts. Wycliffe
spoke out against this—against the
invasion of the rights of a
The antagonism of
Wycliffe toward the Roman Catholic Church, of course, made him a
persona non grata
with the Roman Catholic clergy whom he was denouncing for their various
Wycliffe saw that the best way
to break the power of
the Roman Catholic Church was to place the Bible in the hands of the
people, in their language—the Middle English.
he translated the Bible into Middle English. However,
he did not work from Greek and
He translated it
from the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church, the Latin Vulgate
The New Testament
was done in
1380 and the Old Testament in 1382. So
what we have in Wycliffe’s Bible was a translation of a
it is the first complete translation of the Bible into English. That
was a milestone.
the first time in the history of the
world the whole Bible was translated in English. It
was on manuscript.
This was before
printing so the only copies
you could have were by manuscripts.
Wycliffe’s version had an
immense influence on
crystalizing the English language. King
John of England, who reigned form 1199 to 1216, had lost almost all of
continental possessions including Normandy in France.
140 years of French influence, since the
battle of Hastings, came to an end. The
English language was set adrift on its own apart from the Norman French
under which it had labored for some 140 years. The
English then settled into its own pattern of
expression and it broke
down into three dialects—Northern, Middle, and Southern
were not national languages
and they were not by and large intelligible to one another. There
was no one language that everybody in
England spoke and everyone understood.
eastern Middle English around
London was gradually
beginning to predominate, and this is the language in which Wycliffe
When he did this,
the widespread reading of this Bible, this particular form of English
crystalize as the national language. In
effect, Wycliffe did for English what Luther later did for German when
translated the Bible into German and established a national German
Wycliffe’s work was
revised in 1388 by a friend of
his, John Purvey, and for the next 145 years this was widely circulated
only English Bible.
It was copied by
It cost hundreds
of dollars to own
A man would pay a
load of hay just
to be able to have a copy of the New Testament to use for one day. So
precious was the Word yet so
on December 31st,
Morning Star of the
Reformation and the first Protestant. He
devoted himself to a study of doctrine and he moved, consequently, in
direction of the Reformation views which were to come after him. He
was however brought to trial by the Roman
Catholic Church because he made the mistake of publicly denouncing and
is the Roman Catholic doctrine
that says that at the
Lord’s Supper the priest actually converts the bread and wine
into the real body
and blood of Christ.
When he denied
they brought him to trial and he was convicted and he was dismissed
position at Oxford.
This was in 1382,
two years before his death.
many articles in Middle English that the people could read concerning
abuses and the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church of the middle
the church of course was opposed
to his translation of
the Bible into English.
considered a work of the devil.
his enemies, a monk, at his death gave us this description which
attitude of the clergy toward Wycliffe at the time for translating the
into the language of the people. This
enemy monk says, “On the day of St. Thomas the Martyr,
Canterbury, John Wycliffe, the organ of the devil, the enemy of the
confusion of the common people, the idol of heretics, the looking glass
the encourage of schism, the soul of hatred, the storehouse of lies,
the … of
flattery was suddenly struck by the judgment of God and had all his
description of a
persona non grata, somebody they don’t like.
suffered a stroke and Wycliffe never spoke again.
mouth which was to speak huge things against God and against his
holy church, was miserably drawn aside and afforded a frightfully
His tongue was
and his head shook, showing plainly that the curse which God had
against Cain was also inflicted on him. Archbishop
Arundel complained to the pope of that
postulant wretch John Wycliffe,
the son of the old serpent, the forerunner of antichrist, who had
iniquity by inventing a new translation of the Scriptures.”
the church did not welcome what
Wycliffe had done.
At the Roman
Council of Constance in
1415, Wycliffe was officially declared a heretic and the pope ordered
bones be dug up from consecrated ground and scattered.
for some reason no one did this. A
few years went by, and finally in 1428,
Pope Clement VIII had the bones dug up and burned, and the ashes
the River Swift, and John Wycliffe felt very bad about the whole thing.
Wycliffe’s influence toward
the Reformation was something
absolutely immense because it went far beyond England.
indeed was the morning star of that
tremendous era in history, the Reformation period.
suffered a great deal of abuse and
humiliation during his lifetime and after. Why? To
give you the
Bible which you hold in your hand this morning.
this we come to the modern
is from 1500 on to
It is the next
link in the
It came 150 years
the death of Wycliffe.
During this time
much change had again come into the English language.
was now in the form of that Elizabethan
language in which our King James translation was cast, and indeed our
James Version came from this period of the Modern English era. It
was a time of revolutionary learning and
changes in society.
There were four
great things that had taken place that laid the background and set the
for the first translation of the Scriptures from the original Greek and
under the hand of William Tyndale.
The Printing Press
time was right because, for one
thing, printing had been
invented in 1450 by John Gutenberg of Mainz Germany.
first book he printed was the Latin Vulgate
version of the bible in 1455, and he rapidly improved his printing
press to the
use of moveable type.
It took a copyist
ten months to produce one Wycliffe Bible and it cost hundreds of
dollars to buy
But a printing
thousands of copies very quickly and comparatively cheaply.
this was a tremendous breakthrough
and invention under
the providence of God as God was preparing and moving through history,
preparing the Word of God for its greatest blossoming and fruitage. It
came at an opportune time because in just
the next few years the Protestant Reformation was to break out in
the printing press was going to get the Word out to people about the
learning of Bible doctrine.
second thing that happened was the
capture of Constantinople
by the Turks.
out the Greek and Christian scholars with the manuscripts of Scripture
they had and all their classical writings. They
grabbed everything and they headed west. They
moved out to Italy, to Europe, and the
result was that they greatly stimulated the Renaissance, the revival of
learning, which was then underway. They
introduced Bible study from Hebrew and Greek and they taught these
you must understand that the great
about the 15th
century, were not teaching Hebrew and Greek. It
was the monasteries, it was the church
that had been the repositories for reserving and preserving learning
been lost during the dark ages.
schools, universities, began teaching Greek and Hebrew which was
for the translators.
another great thing that happened
was the first printed
Greek Testament prepared by a Dutch humanist named Erasmus. He
was a great scholar.
printed this testament in 1516.
included notes near the text which
revealed the corrupt state into which the Roman Catholic Church had
copies of this were
sold all over Europe.
This Greek text
created an awakening again among people because people were astonished
what God actually had to say in His Word as they had never seen it
the result was another rising
tide of desire for a
good translation of the English Bible. The
text that Erasmus prepared is today called the
Textus Receptus, or
the received text.
It is virtually
that traditional family of texts that we looked at earlier. Erasmus
was commissioned by Froben, a
publisher, to put together this Greek testament in 1515.
Erasmus came to Balsa, Switzerland and he
worked with about five Greek manuscripts dated from the 11th
manuscripts are in the traditional family, and the reason the Textus
is so often attacked is that scholars say, “Well, Erasmus
went there and
found five, six, or seven manuscripts and that’s what he
that’s one way of
looking at it.
However, we do
have to give
account again to
the providence of God, that God was getting ready to do something in
preparing of the Greek text, because when Erasmus finished in 1516, the
went to press, and the Reformation exploded the next year in 1517 in
And it was
necessary to have a
Greek New Testament in print in order to defend the new doctrines and
revival of learning of doctrine that was to take place.
I think we must take into
consideration that God was in
there providing Erasmus with adequate and proper and reliable
we can’t discount the Textus Receptus (TR) so readily. God
was preparing and the job was done. As
leading principle of the Reformation was
absolute and sole authority of Scripture in faith and practice.
second edition of the Textus
Receptus was the basis for
Luther’s German translation. The
edition of Bezae in 1598 was the basis for our King James Bible in 1611. This
text is viewed by many scholars today as
still the nearest to the originals in spite of the fact that it has
passages such as the Trinitarian passage in 1 John and the last verses
Gospel of Mark in it.
It was the Greek
Bible nevertheless for 300 years until about 1830 when some of these
recent texts were found—Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and
and so on that
we’ve been talking about, and which brought in a further
original writings and which scholars have used since.
did use some Latin Vulgate readings
sometimes in some of his translation where some of his manuscripts were
For example, in
the book of
Revelations, where parts were missing, he would bring it in from the
perhaps God was
preserving in the Latin Vulgate what had disappeared for one reason or
from the Greek text.
was a fourth thing and that was
the discoveries of
America in 1492.
Vasco de Gama had
rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1497, Magellan had circled the world
and Copernicus had set the sun as the center of the solar system in
So it was a whole
new era upon which
background, and with
this new condition of learning and of interest in the Word of God, we
the most magnificent translator of all, William Tyndale, and
we’ll pick up the
story here next time.
The series of
Bibles then rapidly flowed from him down to the one that we
John E. Danish, 1971
to the Basic Bible Doctrine index
the Bible Questions index